Biology Question Bank for Class 12

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

Chapter Summary

          Reproductive health refers to a total well-being in all aspects of reproduction, i.e., physical, emotional, behavioural and social. Our nation was the first nation in the world to initiate various action plans at national level towards attaining a reproductively healthy society.
             Counselling and creating awareness among people about reproductive organs, adolescence and associated changes, safe and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including AIDS, etc., is the primary step towards reproductive health. Providing medical facilities and care to the problems like menstrual irregularities, pregnancy related aspects, delivery, medical termination of pregnancy, STIs, birth control, infertility, post natal child and maternal management is another important aspect of the Reproductive and Child Health Care programmes.
            An overall improvement in reproductive health has taken place in our country as indicated by reduced maternal and infant mortality rates, early detection and cure of STIs, assistance to infertile couples, etc. Improved health facilities and better living conditions promoted an explosive growth of population. Such a growth necessitated intense propagation of contraceptive methods. Various contraceptive options are available now such as natural, traditional, barrier, IUDs, pills, injectables, implants and surgical methods. Though contraceptives are not regular requirements for reproductive health, one is forced to use them to avoid pregnancy or to delay or space pregnancy.
           Medical termination of pregnancy is legalised in our country. MTP is generally performed to get rid of unwanted pregnancy due to rapes, casual relationship, etc., as also in cases when the continuation of pregnancy could be harmful or even fatal to either the mother, or the foetus or both.
         Infections or diseases transmitted through sexual intercourse are called Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STIs). Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases (PIDs), still birth, infertility are some of the complications of them. Early detection facilitate better cure of these diseases. Avoiding sexual intercourse with unknown/multiple partners, use of condoms during coitus are some of the simple precautions to avoid contracting STIs.
            Inability to conceive or produce children even after 2 years of unprotected sexual cohabitation is called infertility. Various methods are now available to help such couples. In Vitro fertilisation followed by transfer of embryo into the female genital tract is one such method and is commonly known as the ‘Test Tube Baby’ Programme.

VERY SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1. What is the objective of RCH?

Answer: The objective of reproductive health are:

  1. Creating awareness among people about various reproduction related aspects.
  2. Providing facilities and support for building up a reproductively healthy society.

2. What are sexually transmitted diseases? Why are they considered self- invited diseases?

Answer: Sexually transmitted diseases are those that are transmitted through sexual intercourse. HIV, Gonorrhea are some of the sexually transmitted diseases.

These are said to be self-invited because people fall prey to these diseases by:

  • Having sex with unknown or multiple partners.
  • Not using protection during coitus.
  • Ignoring the symptoms of the disease.

3. Describe the lactational Amenorrhoea method of birth control.

Answer: Lactational Amenorrhoea refers to the absence of menstruation during the period of intense lactation following parturition.

  • Ovulation and menstrual cycle doesn’t occur during this period
  • This method is effective only up to maximum six month following parturition.

4. Identify a, b, c and d in the following table with reference to birth control?

Method

Example

a

female sterilisation

c

d

Diaphragm

b

Saheli

CuT

Answer:

a- Barrier method                    

b- Tubectomy

c- Oral contraceptive               

d- Intra Uterine Device

5. Why are the males whose testes fail to descend to the scrotum considered infertile?

Answer: The testes are temperature sensitive. If they fail to descend in the scrotum before puberty, they will not produce sperms. Hence the male will be infertile.

6. What is Amniocentesis Test?

Answer: The medical test or a procedure mainly used for the determination of sex of an unborn baby through analyzing the chromosomal content of the amniotic fluid surrounding the foetus is called the amniocentesis test.

Why are copper containing intrauterine devices considered an ideal contraceptive for human female ?

Answer: Copper containing contraceptives functions as follows:

  1. It suppress sperm motility and fertilising capacity of sperm.
  2. It increases phagocytosis of sperm within the uterus.

8. Condoms are the most popular contraceptive devices used by human males. Give reasons.

Answer: (i) Condoms provide an additional benefit of protection from STDs and AIDS.

(ii) They don’t interfere with the sexual act of the user.

(iIi) They are disposable and are easily available.

(iv) As they are self inserted, they give privacy to users.

9. How are implants act as an effective method of contraception in human female? Mention it’s one advantage over contraceptive pills?

Answer: Implants are progesterone or estrogen-progesterone combinations that work by:

i)                   Inhibiting ovulation

ii)                Inhibiting implantation

iii)              Changing the quality of cervical mucus to retard sperm entry.

The effective periods of implants are much longer than pills.

10. Mention the early symptoms of STDs?

Answer: The early symptoms of STDs are:

i)                Itching

ii)                Fluid discharge

iii)              Slight pain and

iv)              Swelling

11. How is IUT different from IUI?

Answer:

IUT

IUI

1.     It is a method of embryo transfer in ART.

2.     The embryo with more than 8 blastomeres are transferred into the uterus of a female who can provide suitable conditions for embryo development.

1.     It is a method of artificial insemination.

2.     The semen from the partner or donor is introduced into the uterus for fertilisation, when the male partner is unable to inseminate or sperm count is low.

12. Enlist the probable cause of infertility?

Answer: The reason of infertility are:

(i) Heredity or congenital cause

(ii) Use of certain drugs

(iii) Immunological response

(iv) Psychological

13. Female gametes are transferred to the fallopian tube in the GIFT procedure. Is it possible to transfer the gametes to the uterus?

Answer: It is not possible to transfer the gametes to the uterus. This is because the gametes cannot survive in the environment of the uterus. They will be degenerated or phagocytosed if transferred directly into the uterus.

14. What are the benefits of natural contraceptive methods over artificial methods?

Answer:

  • The natural methods of contraception involve no side-effects.
  • Unlike the artificial method, the natural method is reversible because there is no surgery involved.
  • Does not require any medical supervision

15. Why is tubectomy considered a contraceptive method?

Answer: Tubectomy is the permanent method of sterilization in women. In this method, the fallopian tubes are blocked or cut so that the egg is stopped from travelling to the uterus. This eliminates any chances of

10. Mention the early symptoms of STDs?

SHORT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1. What are the important features of an ideal contraceptive?

Answer: Following are the features of an ideal contraceptive:

  • It is safe
  • It lasts long
  • It is cost-effective
  • It is highly effective
  • Its effect can be reversed
  • It is independent of coitus
  • It can be administered easily
  • Does not require any medical supervision

2. Enumerate the complications that untreated STDs can lead to.

Answer: The untreated STDs can lead to following complications:

  1. Pelvic Inflammatory disease(PID)
  2. Abortion
  3. Still births
  4. Ectopic pregnancy
  5. Infertility
  6. Cancer of reproductive tract

3. Name any six venereal diseases.

Answer:

  1. Syphilis
  2. Gonorrhoea
  3. Trichomoniasis
  4. Chlamydiasis
  5. genital herpes
  6. AIDS

4. Sterilisation techniques are generally full-proof methods of contraception and have the least side effects. Yet, they are the last option for the couples? What are the reasons for this?

Answer: The reasons for opting sterilisation as the last method of contraception though it have least side effects are as follows:

  • The reversibility of the technique is very poor or almost irreversible.
  • Fear of surgery or invasive techniques.
  • There is miss conception that it will reduce the sexual urge and day to day heavy work can’t be performed.
  • Lack of sufficient facilities in many part of the country.

5. Why medical termination of pregnancy is done? Is MTP legalized in India?

Answer: MTP is done to get rid of unwanted pregnancies either due to unprotected intercourse or failure of the contraceptives used during coitus or rapes. It is also essential in certain cases where continuation of the pregnancy could be harmful or fatal either to the foetus or mother.

Yes, Government of India legalized MTP in 1971 with some conditions to avoid its misuse

6. Mention the various precautions one has to take in order to protect himself/herself form STDs.

Answer:

(i) Avoid blood transfusion from an infected person.

(ii) Avoid sex with an unknown partner or multiple partners.

(iii) Always use condoms.

(iv) Avoid sharing of injections needles and syringes and surgical instruments.

7. State the consequences of over population.

Answer: The consequences of overpopulation are :

  • An increase demand and therefore pressure on the natural resources.
  • An increase in the level of pollution.
  • More number of unemployment, poor infrastructure and pressure on the country’s economy.

8. Give three differences between tubectomy and vasectomy.

Answer: 

Vasectomy

Tubectomy

It is the sterilisation technique for man.

It is a sterilisation technique for woman.

The two vas differentia are cut

or tied off.

The two oviduct are cut and

tied off.

9. An infertile couple is advised to adopt test tube baby programme. Describe the two principal procedures adopted for such technology.

Answer: 

(i) In vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer are the two steps involved in a test tube baby programme.

(ii)   in this method ova from a healthy donor and the sperm from a male donor are induced to form zygote under simulated condition in a laboratory.

(iii)     The zygote or early embryo upto 8 blastomeres is transferred into the fallopian tube (ZIFT) or embryo with more than 8 blastomeres, is transferred into the uterus (IUT) for further development upto parturition.

10. (a) Name the sexually transmitted diseases that are not curable? (b) Condoms are made of which substance? (c) How the low sperm count in the ejaculation of male can be treated by ART?

Answer: 

(a) AIDS, Hepatitis, Genital herpes.

(b) Condoms are made of thin rubber or latex.

(c) The low sperm count in the ejaculation can be treated by artificial insemination (AI).

LONG QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1. Describe any three assisted reproductive techniques practised to treat infertility.

Answer: Assisted Reproductive Techniques refer to the medical procedures used to treat infertility. Few of the assisted reproductive techniques are:

  • In-vitro Fertilization- In-vitro fertilization involves the steps: Stimulation of the ovaries by giving human gonadotropins ↓ Retrieving the released eggs ↓ Fertilization of the eggs with the selected sperms. ↓ Development of eggs into embryos under laboratory environment ↓ The embryos are implanted in the uterus of the female
  • Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection- In this method, one sperm is injected into the egg. But this procedure might damage the egg. The babies might involve defects in the reproductive organs in case of the abnormal Y chromosome.
  • Gamete Intrafallopian Tube Transfer- This method is used in case of fallopian tubes that are functioning properly. In this technique, the eggs and sperms obtained are not fertilized in the laboratory. They are inserted into the far end of the fallopian tube either through the vagina or through the abdomen with the help of a laparoscope.

2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of hormonal contraceptives?

Answer: 

Advantages of hormonal contraceptives:

  • This is a highly effective method of contraception.
  • It can be used for a longer period.
  • Causes very light or no menstruation.
  • The effects are reversible

Disadvantages of hormonal contraceptives:

  • It does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Minor surgery is required to insert and remove the device.
  • It has several side-effects such as irregular menstruation, depression, weight gain, hair loss, etc.
  • The capsule implanted area might get infected.
  • It is necessary to take the medications continuously.
  • The method is expensive.

3. Explain any two sexually transmitted diseases and suggest ways to prevent them.

Answer: Sexually transmitted diseases are those that are transferred from one partner to another through sexual contact. Two sexually transmitted diseases are explained below:

1. AIDS– The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This virus attacks the immune system of the host making him vulnerable to infections. It can be spread through semen, blood, breastmilk, and rectal or vaginal fluids.

2. Genital Herpes- Herpes is a chronic disease spread by the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). The HSV type 2 virus spreads the disease through sexual intercourse. A person suffering from genital herpes will show symptoms like fever, pain while urinating, vaginal discharge, red blisters on the genitals, etc.

Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases:

  • Use protection during sexual intercourse.
  • Get vaccinated for Hepatitis and Human Papillomavirus
  • Get tested for HIV
  • Abstain from sexual activities
  • Do not share the undergarments and towels.

4. Why should sex education be introduced to school-going children? List any five reasons.

Answer: Sex education should be introduced to school going children for the following reasons:

  • To make the students aware that the bodily changes they are experiencing during puberty are absolutely normal and natural.
  • To help them speak up when they face any sexual harassment in society.
  • The students will get to know about the facts of life from a supportive source instead of some absurd show or movie.
  • They will be made aware of the risks involved in having sex.

5. (a) All reproductive tract infections are STDs but not all STDs are reproductive tract infection . Justify with an example. (b) Expand the following. ICSI, GIFT, ZIFT, IUT, IUI

Answer:

(a) all reproductive tract infections (RTI) such as syphilis, gonorrhoea, genital herpes etc are transmitted through sexual intercourse with an infected person, hence they are called STDs.

But there are diseases like AIDS, hepatitis B which are also transmitted through sexual intercourse, but they don’t specifically infect reproductive organs, hence are not called reproductive tract infections. (RTI).

(b)

  • ICSI- Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection
  • GIFT- Gamete intra fallopian transfer
  • ZIFT- Zygote intra fallopian transfer
  • IUT- Intra-uterine transfer
  • IUI- Intra uterine insemination

COMPETANCY BASED QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Population in Odisha is 42 million where youth constitute one fifth of it. The unmet need of family planning is 19%. Modern contraceptive prevalence rate in Odisha is 46.3% . The different contraceptive measures adopted are represented below in a pie chart.

Answer the following question based on your concept on Reproductive health and the above mentioned pie chart.

1. From the pie chart write which family planning method is most popular in Odisha?

Answer: The female sterilisation method is most popular in Odisha.

2. How can the use of condoms be advocated?

Answer: By creating awareness among the people that,it don’t have

  1. any side effects
  2. gives privacy to the user
  3. don’t need medical assistance

3. Why there is prevalence of female sterilisation over male sterilisation?

Answer:

(i)Still there is a belief in society that female are more responsible for reproduction related problems.

(ii) Male are not going for sterilisation because of social stigma.

Q4. How can as an aware citizen you motivate the young couple to adopt the family planning methods?

Answer: 

(i) By briefing them the benefit of small family.

(ii) By creating awareness among them regarding the family planning methods and it’s benefits.

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